Date: Fri, 13 May 2005 22:19:18 EDT
Subject: Dictionaries of English Place-names
Redmonds tends to follow an authority, such as Ekwall, unless he has personally done research on a place-name.
I recall asking him which place-name dictionary he prefers. His response was Ekwall. As a result I purchased The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names, Eilert Ekwall, Fourth Edition, 1960.
For Gledhill Ekwall gives: "First element OE glida, gleoda 'kite'; second element hill OE hyll"
For Barkisland Ekwall gives: "YW [Barkesland 1275 Wakefield Court Rolls] 'Bark's land' Bark is from ON Borkr (gen. Barkar)."
English Place-names by Kenneth Cameron, page 174, gives Gledhill (WRY) "kite", and does not include Barkisland in the index.
Oxford Dictionary of English Placenames by A D Mills, 1991, gives OE gleoda as "frequented by kites". It also gives OE sic as a "small stream". I wonder what "small stream" is in Old Norse?
Tracing the History of Place Names by Charles Whynne-Hammond, 1992, has an interesting section on common place name elements. These are each labeled C Celtic, S Saxon, N Norse or Danish, and F French. All labeled C, F or N are listed below. I have a list of all surnames listed in the Almondbury Parish Register between 1557 and 1852, or in either the 1841 or 1851 census for the same parish. I next plan to search the Oxford Ancestors database for listed surnames that include these elements, perhaps before surgery. [This week I'm seeking a better understanding of the cities of the Hanseatic League.] This Oxford search could identify others who are seeking, or are interested in, the same information.
N Booth, Both
N Breck, Brick
C Crich, Creech
S/N Dal, Dale
C Dun, Din, Don
N Ergh, Er
N Gate, Gait
N Holm, Holme
N How, Hoe
N Keld, Kel
N Kirk, Kir
C Lan, Land
C Lin, Linn, Lyn
S/N Lith, Leth
N Lound, Lund, Land
S/N Naze, Nes, Ness
N Rig, Rigg
S/N Rise, Ris, Rice
N Scale, Skill
N Scough, Scoe
N Seat, Side
N Thorpe, Thorp
C/S Tor, Ter
C Tre, Trey
N Wath, With, Worth
N With, Wath
Total count in the list, excluding those with dual codes, such as typically C/S:
C 7 Celtic
F 1 French
N 18 Norse
S 95 Saxon
The Celts were driven out of most of Northern England, and into Scotland and Wales, after the Norse capture of York. Ekwall comments that the word OE Cumb is an early loan from Celtic and in its modern sense is used to mean "Welsh". Whynne-Hammond lists Cumb as Saxon, which is a surprise. Cameron gives OE cumb (valley) and Ekwall as a deep hollow or valley.
The French word-ending ville does not appear in Ekwall.
It is interesting to see Holme listed as a Norse word. I recall seeing Colne and Holme, as in River Colne and River Holme, being listed as preceltic names. Mills gives Holmr as an Old Scandinavian name. Cameron gives Holme as ON holmr or holmi and hulm as ODanish. Ekwall gives Colne etymology as obscure. Holme is given as from late OE holm, from ON holmr, and from OScand holmi "small island".
The first legible Sykes entry in the Almondbury Parish Register is dated 1558/9 01 16. As in all the early entries it is in Latin. Jacobus Sykes Isabellae Hyrste nupt [James Sykes and Isabel Hirst married] The entry does not include their respective abodes.
The next legible Sykes entry is dated 1558 08 06. Johannes Sykes filius Barnardi off Helme bapt. [John Sykes son of Barnard of Helme baptized] There is an early place name, approximately across the River Colne from Slaithwaite Township, named Helme. This place-name might also refer to Holme, which appears at several nearby clusters of dwellings.
There are many Gledhill, Gleidyll, and Gledell surnames in this early register. On the same day as James Sykes and Isabel Hirst married, Robetus Mawlyveraye and Agneti Gleydyll nupt. [Robert Mauleverer and Agnes Gledhill married.] We should be able to trace the lineages of this surname between 1558 and 1851.
I feel comfortable with Peter Gledhill's analysis, which apparently exhibits a deep understanding of Old Norse words.